What are hurricanes?
Hurricanes are low-pressure areas with spiral winds that rotate counterclockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere.Types of hurricanes:
The types of hurricanes have been classified according to their speed, the extent of their devastation, and the damage they leave behind. The types of hurricanes are:
It is a first-class hurricane, and the wind speed in this hurricane is between 133-118 kilometers per hour, and it leaves some minor damage, which is shortened to causing some destruction in crops; destruction of rooftop equipment; Moving homes.
This hurricane is classified as a second-class hurricane, with winds between 180-118 kilometers per hour, causing moderate damage; Where light trees are uprooted while large trees are cracked, tents are uprooted, and the windows of houses are broken. In addition, it causes cars to overturn.
It is a hurricane that comes with a strength of the third degree, and in which the wind speed is between 210-181 kilometers per hour, and because of it, huge trees are broken and uprooted from their place, and the facades of houses are smashed and their roofs are uprooted, and cars are overturned.
[Very strong hurricane]
It comes from the fourth degree, and the wind speed in it is between 250-210 kilometers per hour, in which there is complete destruction of homes, especially roofs, and power lines are cut, roads are closed, and trees are uprooted.
It comes from the fifth degree, in which the wind speed is between 330-251 kilometers per hour, and it leads to the destruction of homes and flattening them to the ground, as it carries large, crushed pieces to long distances.
[Super strong hurricane]
It is a hurricane that comes in the sixth category and has a wind speed of more than 420 kilometers per hour, and it is a hypothetical hurricane that has never come to Earth but has been hypothesized by computers.
Hurricanes come in different forms and all they have in common is that they are intense windstorm that revolves around a fixed point; Therefore, the types and names of those hurricanes vary according to their strength, size, and how and where they originated. There are several names that hurricanes are known for, including “hurricane,” “cyclone,” and “typhoon.” These three names are nothing but different terms to express something in common, which is a tropical cyclone. The phenomenon off the coast of North America is called “Hurricane”, while off East and Southeast Asia it is called “Typhoon”, while it is known off India as “Whirlwind”, and despite the different names and types, this phenomenon is formed in the same way and has the same destructive effect, but degrees according to their strength.
As for the names of hurricanes in ancient times; There was no particular mechanism for naming them; They were called by the names of the years in which they occurred, such as the hurricane of 1906 AD, or they were taking the names of some saints, such as the hurricane Santa Maria, or they were named according to the place in which they occurred, such as the Miami hurricane, and thus the names of hurricanes vary according to time, place, strength and other factors.
A hurricane is defined as a tropical or subtropical storm with winds up to 120 km per hour. This storm consists of the gathering of a group of small thunderstorms during the hurricane season (end of summer to the beginning of autumn). You should know how to survive during a hurricane, how to prepare in advance, and what precautions you need to take account.
1- Be prepared if you live in a hurricane-prone area. Do you live in a city that gets hit by hurricanes frequently, such as Florida, Georgia, and South and North Carolina? So you have to prepare in advance before hurricane season, which in these areas usually begins on June 1st. FEMA and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration advise that you prepare in advance by developing a contingency plan and preparing the necessary supplies and placing them in an accessible location.
- The family contingency plan describes how to get out in the event of a hurricane and how to evacuate the house. It is better to put more than one plan in case your chosen plan does not work as you imagined, then you can follow another plan.
- Continuously train the family in the emergency plan and how to turn off the water, gas, and electricity taps, and make sure the youngest members of your family know how to call the emergency.
- Emergency supplies include the basic necessities you need to live for at least 72 hours, such as water, food, first aid, and lighting.
- Remember that not being prepared in advance can make you focus on just surviving once the winds reach the equatorial degree.
2- Consider buying a generator. Make sure that you have a generator to ensure that the electricity in the house is available after it is cut off due to the storm, and be sure to place the generator in a safe place that is not reached by water or rain. Learn how to turn on and off the generator and pay attention to its ventilation.
- Make sure you put the generator on the ground in a dry place.
- Avoid connecting the generator to the normal electrical outlets in the house so as not to cause a power outage.
- Make sure to run the generator outside the room, away from doors and windows, to reduce the risk of carbon monoxide poisoning.
- Ask to see how the generator operates during the purchase process.
- Alternators need constant testing and maintenance, so be sure to follow the included instructions to avoid finding it not working when needed.
3- Buy radios and lamps that are powered by batteries. Make sure you buy flashlights and a battery-powered radio as you will experience the power and communications cuts during severe storms.
You can get a radio dedicated to broadcasting all the weather alerts and updates from the Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; Turn it on standby and take care of the batteries.
- Buy energy-efficient headlights or those that depend on the energy of movement and continue to work continuously without stopping depending on the mechanical energy from the cranks (crank). One of these types of flashlights is the Coleman LED Micropacker.
- Replace candles with sticks, which are much safer in case there are gas leaks during a storm.
- Store a large number of batteries in a waterproof container.
4- Add a "safety room" in your home if you can. A good option to protect you and your family from the risk of injury and death in severe weather conditions such as hurricanes is a FEMA standard safe room that is built into a room in the house.
- Safety rooms can withstand high winds as they are supported by reinforced concrete walls, floors, and ceilings.
- Your home can be furnished with a safe room and you should make sure that it is stocked with water, food, and supplies and that it is comfortable for everyone. Families often choose to make one of their indoor bathrooms a safety room.
- FEMA provides some grants and funding opportunities to build safety rooms in case you cannot afford the costs yourself.
5- Insure your home in advance. Most hurricanes cause homes to be destroyed by strong winds, so try to minimize damage to your home by securing it well before hurricanes hit.
- Remove fallen tree branches in your yard before entering the hurricane season to avoid blowing them and damaging your home, in any case, strong storm winds cause tree branches to break.
- Strengthen your roof, doors, and windows, by installing hurricane coverings on windows and doors in advance of a storm.
- You can also ask a contractor to reinforce your roof with hurricane trusses and roofing straps.
6- Reinforce your home as soon as a storm warning is issued. There are many things you can do to further strengthen your home even if you do so before storm season enters.
- Close window coverings if you have them, or put wood panels over windows and secure them with hard tape.
- Clean sewer pipes and vents of dirt and blockages, and close propane tanks.
- Make sure your garage door is tightly closed and seal any openings between the door and the floor, as a flying garage can wreak havoc on your home.
7- Stock up on food and water. Food such as meat and dairy spoils with power outages and the cooler stops working, and storms may cause water cuts, so you must be careful to store canned foods and those that do not spoil quickly and also store water in an amount that is enough for you and family members for 3 days.
- Fill the bottles with drinking water and then store it in your shelter. You will need to stock approximately 3.5 liters of water per person per day for eating and washing. Always pay attention to the passage of days and be aware of the amount of drinking water constantly consumed.
- Store food enough for 3 days. Make sure the food is either canned or dried so it doesn't spoil your pet's food storage.
- Disinfect the bathtub and other sinks in the house and then fill them with water, where this water can be used for drinking, showering, or cleaning toilets.
B: Storm blowing:
1- Evacuate. It is better to evacuate and move to a safer place for you and your family than to face the storm at home, so move north, for example, if you live in Florida, start moving to Georgia, and so on.
- Stay together They left the house in one group and got into one car if possible.
- Follow local authority advice and guidelines regarding evacuation, and be aware that evacuation is a priority if you live in a mobile home of any strength, as it can easily be destroyed by a first-class hurricane.
- Take with you only what you really need such as mobile phones, medicine, identification papers, cash, and some clothes as well as emergency supplies.
- Make sure to fill your car's fuel tank and move to evacuate early so that the storm doesn't blow while you're in the car.
- Do not leave pets indoors, as they may be injured or killed by water or flying objects.
2- Decide on the shelter where you will take shelter. You should decide where you and your family will take shelter if you decide to stay home; Choose a place without windows or skylights and close all windows, doors, and openings in the house.
- Hoping that you are prepared as already mentioned and have a secure space prepared.
- If you don't have a safe room, you can act by preparing a place to take covers such as an en suite bathroom or a dressing room, but you can protect yourself in a ceramic bathtub and cover it with plywood panels.
- Look for shelters that are open to the public. There are many shelters throughout hurricane-prone cities such as in Florida that are open to the public during hurricane season. Go to a shelter near you and take medicine, food, ID cards, home insurance papers, lamps, bedding, and some toys with you.
3- Make sure you arrive at a shelter or place of safety at least two hours before the storm. Do not wait for the storm to come until you take shelter in a safe place, but be prepared hours in advance and take a battery-powered radio with you and some extra batteries to listen to weather developments every 15 to 30 minutes, at this point you will find that the beginnings of the storm are starting to affect your home.
- Have emergency supplies close at hand.
- Stay indoors all the time, even when the storm is calm, as the weather during the juice changes drastically and quickly, especially if the eye of the hurricane passes near your area.
- Stay away from windows, skylights, and glass doors, where flying objects and storm-scattered glass are the most dangerous.
- Lie on the floor under a sturdy table for added protection.
- Water and lighting pose a great danger that may lead to electrocution, and for this, you must disconnect the public electrical current in the house, unplug electrical appliances, and refrain from using these devices and phones, as well as taking a shower.
4- Stay where you are in case of an emergency and call for help. What should you do if you have an emergency during a hurricane? Whether it is a case of injury from flying objects or other medical conditions.
- Always stay indoors unless you are in danger of drowning in the water, as strong winds and flying objects can injure or even kill you.
- Call 911 if your life or the life of a family member is in immediate danger. But keep in mind that communications may be broken, for example, there were thousands of emergency calls left unanswered during Hurricane Katrina.
- Rely on the resources you have. Treat injuries with first aid supplies and follow emergency instructions if you can contact them.
C: Rebuilding after a hurricane:
1- Make sure the exit is safe. Do not leave your shelter unless you listen to the Department of Oceanography alert to the possibility of exit, as calm winds may be due to the passage of the eye of the hurricane, which is followed by a strong increase in wind intensity due to the passage of the wall of the hurricane, hurricanes last several hours at times.
- Wind speed increases in the area around the eye of the hurricane and results in tornadoes as well.
- Wait at least 30 minutes after the eye of the hurricane has passed before exiting rooms with windows, being careful as flying glass can still be dangerous.
- Be careful even after the hurricane has passed, there are still some dangers such as sunken trees and electrical wires, do not try to approach any wires or sources of electricity, but call the electric company or emergency for help.
- Stay away from flooded areas, and be careful when you have to cross a flooded area as there may be submerged objects or other hazards, such as power cords.
2- Take care while entering buildings. Hurricanes destroy and damage large buildings, so do not enter buildings after a hurricane unless you are sure they are intact leave immediately if you notice any signs that the building may collapse.
- Stay away if you smell gas leaking or the building is underwater or has a fire.
- Use light bulbs instead of candles, torches, matches, or light bulbs to avoid causing a fire or explosion due to the leaking gas. Open all windows and doors to let the gas out.
- Never turn the electricity back on unless you are sure it's safe by checking all electrical and gas connections before turning it on.
- Be aware of slippery surfaces, fallen debris, or broken stones when entering a building.
3- Check for damages. The safety of you and your family members is the top priority in hurricane situations, and then after the hurricane passes you can start checking the damage to your home and contact the relevant authorities if you discover significant damage to the structure of the house in order to carry out the necessary repairs.
- Clean and disinfect everything that has come into contact with sewage, bacteria, or chemicals, and dispose of all spoiled food as soon as you suspect it.
- Check the water tanks for safety and replace damaged or contaminated tanks.
- Begin removing and replacing wet walls and panels that may leave room for mold to form.
4- Get rid of the water that has been collected in the garage. Avoid entering the garage if it was flooded to avoid being electrocuted and to avoid bacteria and debris. On the other hand, use the water pump to dispose of water inside the garage to reduce the water by a third per day until it is completely removed.
- Connect the pump wire to the electricity at the top of the house and then start the process of pumping the water, keeping the wire away from the water and wearing rubber shoes.
- You can connect the hose for the powerful pumps through the garage window.
- If you can't do so safely, contact the fire department for help.
5- Report the losses to your insurance company. You can recover some losses if you insure your home for flood, wind, and storm losses. Contact your insurance professional to submit your report as soon as possible.
- List the losses, take photos and videos, and keep repair receipts, and even your hotel accommodation expenses.
- Make sure your insurance company knows how to reach you in case you have to leave your home. Call them and tell them where you are.
- Some in cases of heavy losses write the name of their insurance company on the house in order to draw attention.
- As much as possible, try to limit losses by covering ceilings and openings with wood, plastic, or other materials.
- From June 1 to November 30 in the Atlantic, Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and mid-Pacific regions.
- From May 15 to November 30 in the Eastern Pacific to 140 West longitude.
- Make sure to help the elderly or sick and get them to a safe place if they need to.
- Only get out of your home or shelter when necessary, and don't leave the house until after the storm has passed.
- Be prepared during hurricane season, listen to the National Hurricane Center's year-round bulletins, and tune in to local channels for forecasted storm tracks and intensity.
- Make sure pets carry a collar with their information in case they get lost.
- If you live in a hurricane-prone area and the homes have a basement, the basement is the safest place, so make sure you store food, supplies, supplies, batteries, flashlights, and reinforce windows.
- If you live in a multi-story building, then you should make sure that you are on a floor that is not too high during the storm, and preferably move to a medium-sized building.